Social Transformation

Regarding the social dimension of the colonial transformation of societies, we defined four processes as significant and operationable, the immigration of people from the colonizing country (FORPRE) and other colonies or areas for labor market reasons (WORKIM), the extent of successful missionary activities (MISSION) and the colonial drawing up of borders (BORDERS, FIRSTCEN). Due to lack of comparable and consistent data, we could not define indicators for the colonial investment in health and education systems (e.g. colonial government expenditure data, or medical doctors per population). Life expectancy and literacy cannot be taken as indicators for colonial impact because they are determined by several other factors as well (cf. Ziltener/Mueller 2007). Also for more general effects of colonial domination, such as alienation (Fanon (1963[1961], Césaire 2000[1950]) we could not find appropriate indicators measuring different levels of impact.